Meteorology is an interdisciplinary program which prepares students for entering a wide variety of professional careers as well as graduate programs in weather modeling and forecasting, air pollution studies, broadcast meteorology, hydrology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in meteorology, and education. Government, industry, and private research groups may also provide entry level positions for meteorologists. University teaching and research positions in Meteorology requires earning a Ph.D. A student graduating from the Meteorology program may find employment with the National Weather Service as an applied or operational meteorologist. The military may provide opportunities with forecasting centers that include flight and airborne operations, ground support for the army, and naval meteorology. There are a number of private-sector companies that provide weather service to ocean shipping firms and port operators, electric and gas utilities, farmers, ranchers, and highway departments. Employment with research laboratories includes studies in global climate change including remote sensing and GIS applications. A high-profile career in meteorology includes media weathercasting for television, radio, and newspapers. Related careers in meteorology include marketing and sales of meteorological equipment made by companies involved in the design and manufacture of weather instruments.