By Rubye DuTerroil
Anyone browsing through a file of the San Antonio Herald newspaper for the year 1855 may read this tribute of respect to Miss Penelope H. Hale, assistant teacher in the San Antonio Female Institute, who died on Friday, June 5, 1855, at a very youthful age:
Her unassuming sincerity of character and courteous demeanor secured the esteem and confidence of her associates while her untiring kindness and affectionate manners won the love and respect of all her youthful pupils.
The school teacher always has been a highly esteemed member of society, and Miss Hale was one of a throng, entirely unknown to posterity, but honored in her day by those who knew her.
In the 1850s when San Antonio was without public free schools and the establishment of them was a controversial issue with the town fathers, a fertile field was open for the growth of private and denominational enterprises. Hence religious bodies active in educational work founded institutions and several individual teachers opened schools and built up a favorable patronage. A number of these schools were taught exclusively by women, and in others, with few exceptions, women formed the majority of instructors. Compensation for teachers was dependent upon the number of pupils enrolled and the cost of tuition; it is quite certain it was not such a reward as to arouse envy in the hearts of present day teachers in similar schools.
The admirable energy and initiative displayed in establishing institutions of learning was first evidenced in San Antonio by the founding of Ursuline Academy in 1861 under the auspices of the Catholic Church. Obviously, Divine Providence has been its guardian, for it is one of the few private schools organized in the 19th century which still survives in its original location with an unbroken history.
This boarding and day school for girls, situated on Augusta Street, and on the west bank of the San Antonio River on a lot of ten acres, was first conducted by Mother Mary Magdalen, Superior, and eighteen accomplished nuns. The Ursuline Sisters (Daughters of St. Angela), devoted to the cause of education, have worldwide recognition as inspiring teachers and guides of youth, and San Antonio was particularly fortunate in acquiring the services of a community of Ursulines.
The city is indebted for this educational opportunity to the Reverend Bishop John M. Odin, who, making a pastoral visit to San Antonio in 1851, saw the need of a local school for girls. He purchased a large stone house that had been built for a residence about 1850 by a Frenchman by the name of Toinsaid, and abandoned by him when his bride refused to leave Europe and join him. Bishop Odin’s appeal to the Ursuline Convent of New Orleans for a staff of Sisters to conduct the school was promptly answered by volunteers.
Mother Mary Magdalen and the other Ursulines yielding to the requested mission, set out on October 7, 1851, across the Gulf of Mexico, and after a three-day voyage landed in Galveston Bay, Texas, from which place they journeyed to San Antonio by stage, accompanied by Father Dubuis, the parish priest of Castroville, Texas. The trip to San Antonio proved a trying one. Soon after they left Galveston, a fierce storm began to rage and they were forced to seek shelter in a humble roadside hut. When the storm subsided, they resumed their journey with hopeful prospects of soon reaching their destination. The weary travelers arrived in the Alamo City at night and occupied the spacious stone house, unlighted except for rays of the moon shining through its windows, void of both panes and blinds.
This new abode was unfurnished and overrun with scorpions and spiders. The Sisters began at once to make it habitable and soon the old rock building was transformed into a comfortable domicile and school for girls. Mrs. Kate Meritt Clarkson, a San Antonio belle of the sixties and one of the Ursulines’ first scholars, affectionately recalls her early school days under their guidance. She says, “The Urusline ladies had one of the finest schools in Texas, and many of the first families of Texas were represented.” From Austin there were Colonel Rip Ford’s daughters, the Burleson’s, Robinsons, Bremonds, Kinneys, Fraziers, and Grahams. General Twigg’s niece, Bonnie Adams, and Dr. McCormick’s stepdaughter, Nannie Wells, were also in attendance.
These students and others, who sought instruction at the convent, did not do so because there was a dearth of schools; but for the spiritual, moral, and intellectual guidance they expected to receive from the Daughters of St. Angela, and the home-like atmosphere they maintained. The Ursulines have always taught not only by precept, but by every action, thought, and attribute of their character. And with a sympathy illumined by love and ballasted with brains, they have bound themselves to their pupils, and have endeavored to instill in them high-mindedness and a love for true ideals and real culture.
How busy the nuns were kept, with the pressing duties of classroom and playground, is revealed in the following beautiful letter written by Mother Superior during the Civil War in answer to an application made for a contribution of fancy work for the Fair of the Baylor Guerillas:
Ursuline Convent, San Antonio, Texas, May 31, 1863
Dear Mrs. Pyron:
Pardon me for deferring since yesterday a reply to your note; but I am pained to say that we can not offer one object suitable to the purpose you have proposed, for the incessant occupation of our small number of sisters, in the education of children to whom four languages are taught, have prevented them from doing extra fancy work.
We are grateful for the justice done us in believing that we participate in the noble sympathy which has prompted the ladies of our city to efforts of zeal and charity truly admirable. Believe that we have often desired to cooperate with them in solacing our Southern Military, whose bravery and suffering enkindle ardor in their cause; but our straitened circumstances leave us only the means of receiving children and invoking heaven in behalf of our valiant defenders. Believe it would be gratifying could we offer something more substantial than words and as a proof of our good will permit us to present the trifling sum of $50, which is not given out of our superfluity, but like the widow’s mite from scantiness.
J. De St. Maria, Superior
Obviously Mother Superior was helpful and affectionate in the community and conformed herself to the exigencies of time and circumstances. Temporal difficulties are suggested, but however sharp they seemed, they were eventually cared for and the Academy prospered. In 1867 and 1868 the chapel and clock tower were built. The tower has only three faces and holds the clock brought from France by Father Bufsaid, whose remains are buried under the floor of the sanctuary. During the Civil War students of the Academy would happily say that the face was left out of the clock on the north side because they did not want the Yankees to know the time of day. However, the reason was that at the time of its installation no homes or buildings were on the north side of the convent.
As the Ursuline's made additions to their academy, the pioneer faith of Catholicism, comprising the strongest body of Christians in the city, continued in their ambition to foster institutions of learning. Among the fruits of their endeavor were several parochial schools conducted by ladies. The Sisters of Incarnate Word taught at the San Fernando School located on the northeast corner of Cameron and Presidio Streets. Sister Saint Peter was Mother Superior and with the assistance of eight Sisters promoted the mental and spiritual growth of many San Antonio youths, especially of Latin-American descent. In 1877 the school had an enrollment of one hundred pupils.
In that same year that the attendance at San Fernando reached the one hundred mark, one hundred and fifty children were being trained in the perfect exercise and kingly continence of their body and souls at Saint Joseph’s Parochial School on the north side of East Commerce Street. Sister Mary Clair, Superioress, assisted by three Sisters of the Order of Divine Providence did the teaching. Sisters of this order also conducted Our Lady of the Lake College situated on West Commerce Street. The first building of this college was erected in 1896 as a secondary school by Mr. Wahrenberger, the architect. Other sisters busy training the minds of children in the right direction were the Sisters of Charity. Their school was between Blum and Alameda Streets on the east side of Bonham.
Catholics were not alone in this educational field. Following their early educational efforts, St. Mary’s Hall (Wolfe Memorial), a high class French and English boarding and day school for girls, under the rectorship of Right Reverend R. W. B. Elliot, D. D., Episcopal Bishop of West Texas, was founded. Apparently this school had temporal difficulties and the teachers were active in overcoming them. A glimpse of the initiative and talent they possessed was evidenced in August, 1871, when under the auspices of Mrs. Polk and Mrs. Edmonds, a first class entertainment of music, dancing, and singing was given at the Plaza House to raise funds for defraying the expense needed in getting the Hall fitted up and completed as an educational institution. It was an enjoyable affair and many of the best families in the city were present. A local paper commented that the financial outcome could not be calculated, since there were probably many who bought tickets and failed to attend, but “if this be true, it does not speak well for San Antonio with respect to appreciation of high moral and intellectual performances. Mrs. Guion Dau and pupils should have attracted a large assemblage.”
One hopes that these talented ladies raised the desired funds. Obviously once the school became widely known, it maintained itself financially if it did not pay a dividend on the investment. And Mrs. Polk was an energetic teacher who did not waste valuable time on long summer vacations. In June, 1875, she informed her friends and patrons that instruction at St. Mary’s Hall would be continued without loss of time, and gave her prices for teaching according to class, at $2, $3, $4. Although it was not stated, presumably these were monthly tuition rates.
After 1873, the teachers of St. Mary’s Hall probably felt themselves too well established in the community to need to advertise; at any rate, one learns little about them from the press. The last notice regarding Mrs. V. T. Polk appeared in August, 1873, stating that she and Miss Sweet would re-open school on Monday, September 1. Just how long Mrs. Polk taught at the Hall is not forthcoming. Neither is there any available information as to when Miss Phillippa G. Stevenson took over, yet around 1880 she was principal of the school, and had the assistance of a full corps of teachers in the various branches.
Almost coincident with the founding of the Ursuline Academy and prior to the building of St. Mary’s Hall, both of which have grown with the town and are still flourishing, the San Antonio Female Institute came into being. The reader has already made the acquaintance of one of its teachers, Miss Hale, at the beginning of the chapter. Early in August, 1855, Mr. S. Newton and Miss E. R. Strachen announced that the Institute would again be opened for the reception of pupils on August 29, and would be continued provided the patronage was sufficient to justify their joint labors. Miss Strachen had been with the school five months and patrons were very favorably impressed with her educational work. With such competence, undoubtedly she was instrumental in building up a desirable patronage.
A local newspaper urged citizens to aid in establishing this high class school and thus eliminate the heavy expense of sending their daughters away from home to be educated.
Parents enrolling their girls at this institute could certainly expect splendid training in deportment and the refinements of life as well as in many intricate academic subjects. There were three departments in the school, and tuition was paid according to the pupil entered. The preparatory department was taught for the sum of $15 per term. The next department called junior class cost $19. And the senior department could be attended for the sum of $25. Other courses offered were preparatory language, drawing, and singing and harmony, which might be had for $15 each. Piano lessons were given for $25 and the use of instrument was $5 extra. One half of the tuition charges were required in advance, and the other at the expiration of half the term. Scholars were received at any time during the session and charged from the date of entrance to the end of the term; but no deductions were made for absences except in cases of protracted illness.
Competition should be foreign to educational enterprises, nevertheless, there was a strong spirit of rivalry among teachers of the 19th century. No sooner would one individual establish her work than another would seek to compete with it. Patrons believing that the tuition charges of the San Antonio Female Institute were too high could send their girls to Miss Walker, who conducted a school on much the same plan at somewhat lower prices. This school mistress, eminently qualified for teaching the various branches of English education, opened a school for girls at the residence of Mr. Canterbury. She offered a large array of subjects. Lessons in the primary department were given for the sum of $10.90 per session of five months. The next department, called the junior class, offered lessons in grammar, geography, arithmetic, and history, all for the sum of $15. The senior class was instructed in all the higher branches of English for a cost of $20. Special attention was given to art, composition, and letter-writing; and two afternoons each week were devoted to embroidery and ornamental needle work.
Miss Walker did her teaching thoroughly, gave a distinctive tone to her educational work, and as an instructress and disciplinarian she had few equals. Her exceptional executive ability and her untiring efforts and perseverance won for her one of the largest schools of its kind ever established in San Antonio. Its enrollment numbered forty-five pupils. In February, 1856, Miss Walker moved her school to the front basement of the Methodist Church and made arrangements to secure a competent assistant. In her advertisement she gratefully acknowledged the liberal patronage she had enjoyed and expressed a desire to merit its continuance.
Although Miss Walker had considerable patronage, other schools in different parts of the township were not lacking the encouragement necessary to maintain classes. On the southeast corner of Navarro and Houston Street, where Goggan’s Music Store stood so long, was a little four-room cottage serving as a school and conducted by four teachers—two men and two women. Mrs. Julia Thompson Neal, an old resident of San Antonio, among the first Anglo-American children living in the town, cherishes delightfully a pleasant recollection of her first day at this school under the guidance of Mrs. Thompson. Mrs. Neal says:
My sister and I were at school quite early the first morning when some one said, “There comes the teacher now.” I thought my troubles had commenced and started to cry. My older sister and cousin came up to see what the trouble was and just as I told them I was afraid the teacher was going to whip me, Mrs. Thompson came along and heard me. She patted me and said, “If you are a good girl, I will not whip you.” After that I was not afraid anymore.
The teacher has been called the child’s other mother; and this school mistress gave the typical answer of a mother to her child, and obviously brought about a pleasurable animation—a condition that endured through the years.
As Mrs. Thompson’s name smelled sweet with the myrrh of remembrance, another teacher, Mrs. Millner, was not so affectionately recalled by Belger Boyer, a cowboy from the wide open spaces. In 1860, Boyer, a nephew of General John R. Baylor of Confederate fame, attended Mrs. Millner’s third grade class of the German-English school. This school dame desired discipline and apparently did not spare the rod in maintaining it. One day on hearing a commotion in the room, she thought she knew its sources and acting hastily, whacked the cowboy across the head with a ruler. Boyer, innocent of any disturbance, became furious. He sprang from his seat at lightning speed, seized the ruler from her grasp, and left the school for good.
When Mrs. Millner was not provoked to strike a pupil with a ruler to remind him he was disturbing the class, she used the expression “Hark” which created a great deal of amusement. She came to San Antonio from the North.
Regarding her accomplishments as a teacher very little is mentioned, but the fact that she taught at the German-English School is proof enough of her competency. This school rivaling all early educational efforts in San Antonio in importance, was established by the Casino Association in 1858 and chartered in 1860, at the same time moved to South Alamo Street where the building now stands occupied by the San Antonio Junior College. Mrs. Millner was the only female on the school faculty in 1860 and evidently could teach more than the regular academic subjects since the Daily Ledger announced September 30, 1858, that embroidery lessons would be given by a capable female.
Every school already mentioned as being opened by individual teachers advertised a readiness to instruct in needle work. One wonders if here, as much as in the three R’s, lay the object of these schools for young ladies. The Germans were very progressive in promotion of schools and had more than one to which boys and girls went together to learn to read. In 1861 the American-German School with an enrollment of sixty pupils, was conducted on Crockett Street near Alamo by Mrs. And Mrs. H. Moeller. They employed Mrs. Carolin, a lady of great ability, to direct the English department. In their teaching this faculty used the inductive method more than training by memory exercises, and they constantly endeavored to keep the purest morals in their schools.
Other competent teachers could be found teaching at the Flores Street School, which was also under the management of the Germans. The two principals, Professor Perren and Mrs. L. de L. Wilrich, were teachers of exceptional ability. A daily paper commented on their accomplishments thus:
The knowledge we have of both principals justifies us in recommending their school to the favorable notice of parents who have either boys or girls to educate. If good morals, refined manners, knowledge acquired by study and extensive travel and last, but not least, the reading of character so as to apply to discipline judiciously, with a firmness tempered by kindness can make good teachers, they will be found at Flores Street school.
This school was originally a boys school and became co-educational in consequence of numerous applications from patrons and friends. Mrs. Wilrich taught German, Latin, history, and geography. Monthly tuition terms were $2.50, $4.00, and $5.00, according to class.
Although the patrons of the Flores Street School favored co-education, it had been looked upon all through the 1800s as undesirable, and many separate schools were established for girls. The San Antonio Female College was opened in February, 1860, under the presidency of Reverend Jos. Cross, D.D. It might seem that this college was an outgrowth of the earlier Female Institute, but apparently they had no connection. The college had two female teachers. The President’s wife, Mrs. Jane Cross, a teacher of much experience who had been connected with some of the best institutions in the United States, was teacher of English branches, and the French and Spanish languages. The other teacher, Miss Hannah M. Anderson was preceptress of the Preparatory Department. She had a reputation as an instructress, “who in courtesy, industry and fidelity, had seldom been surpassed.”
Teachers exercised paternal government over the students and advertised that their morals and deportment would be carefully guarded; namely, they never would go any place without the company of teachers, nor receive visits except in the teachers’ presence. And they were not allowed to make bills at the store without having express permission from parents. This school should have appealed to mothers of young ladies, for in addition to close supervision, their board was only $15 per month.
In September, 1860, a local paper carried an advertisement that exercises in the San Antonio Female College would be resumed on September 3, under Dr. and Mrs. Boring assisted by an able body of teachers in “all departments of a solid and ornamental collegiate education” Evidently Dr. And Mrs. Cross taught only one session; at any rate, their names do not appear in future notices. Moreover, the name of Miss Anderson was not on a faculty list of 1862. With the exception of two men, the teachers at that time were: Miss Mary A. Hurd, assistant principal; Mrs. M. Palknor, instructress in drawing and painting; and Miss Cecilia Navarro, teacher of Spanish.
While school dames trained girls for cultured womanhood in San Antonio Female College, Mrs. R. T. Faulconer opened a select school for young ladies in her home. She seemed an instructress of unusual ability, and offered to teach all branches of a thorough English education as well as give instruction in subjects pertaining to a regular collegiate course if it was desired. She also gave lessons in drawing, painting, and music. Desiring permanently to establish herself as a teacher, public patronage was solicited and all those entrusting their children to her care were assured good results.
One views with amazement the array of subjects which these schools professed to teach. William Worsham, who began a school in the basement of the Methodist Church, required several lines in the San Antonio Express to enumerate the different subjects which he was prepared to teach boys and girls. However, he did have a limited amount of assistance. The young ladies were taught by the experienced Mrs. Worsham, a graduate of Tuscambia College, Alabama; and the German, French, and Spanish languages were taught by an accomplished teacher in that department.
It would be rash to assert that better opportunities could be offered anywhere than this; but San Antonio youths had a large choice of schools—and especially is this true of the girls whose education received much attention. Madame Garnier Bernard, who started a school at her residence on Alamo Street in 1868, specialized in the teaching of two arts especially suited to girls, namely, embroidery and dressmaking. She also taught French. It is to be hoped that this schoolmistress prospered; but one suspects those who wished to learn French were few.
A different line of teaching is represented by Mrs. C. T. Jones. This instructress informed her friends that she would give lessons on the pianoforte and in singing beginning on February 1, 1868, at the residence of A. W. Briggs (Colonel Newton’s house). Undoubtedly, Mrs. Jones was successful, for most people realize that music and singing are ennobling influences and add strength to the emotional part of life. Anyway, these tastes were nourished by not a few teachers. Mrs. Guion included them in her curriculum when she opened a school for young ladies next door to Mr. Bell on January 4, 1870. Limiting her students to twelve, this school dame not only taught a regular course of study but gave instruction in English, French, Spanish, and German, if desired. Seemingly, the curriculum left nothing to be desired by the most fastidious; and since no student was accepted under the age of ten, it is probably reasonable to assume that the young ladies who benefited from it had already completed an elementary course in the three R’s.
Certainly, no one needed to have attained the age of ten without learning to read, write, and cipher; for schools were not only plentiful in San Antonio, but located in different parts of the township and therefore sufficiently convenient to all ages. In May, 1870, Miss Lizzie Godwin, a lady of high scholastic accomplishments, re-opened her school in the new building of the J. H. Marmion on Soledad Street, above the Convent. She was an experienced teacher, and for many years had been one of the principals at Barton Academy at Mobile, Alabama.
Another school was opened on Flores Street by the experienced teacher, Mrs. S. F. Ostrom, at her residence two doors above Dr. Kingsbury’s. Listing her terms as $3.00, $4.00, and $5.00 per month, payable in advance, Mrs. Ostrom said:
Many flattering encouragements and solicitations of friends has[sic] determined me to open a Private Select School. Instruction will be given in every desired branch. Uniform and strict discipline, which is the first hand-maid of success, for both teacher and scholar will be maintained.
Highly specialized psychology such as it is today was not in vogue when Mrs. Ostrom began her teaching career; nevertheless, she was an eminently qualified instructress, had a strong personal influence, and was very popular with both parent and pupil.
Evidently, Mrs. Ostrom possessed the foundations for successful teaching, but there were others making like contributions to education who, too, had widespread acquaintance and popularity. Worthy of mention were Misses Cushman and Speer. These instructresses taught school for a time at the Commerce Street School under the direction of Reverend J. F. Martin. While pursuing their career in 1872, they were inspired to form a partnership and organize their own school, and on September 1 of that year they advertised the opening of a new session of school, and informed the public that in the afternoon and evening she would give private lessons in English or in any of the English branches at 516 Nacogdoches Street.
Several other high class boarding schools for girls deserve mention. Mrs. Annie Hamilton’s school was a fitting companion for Mrs. Gregory’s. It had a competent staff of teachers, and its method of instruction and standard of work were second to none. Another boarding school for girls conducted on the same plan as that followed by Mrs. Hamilton and Mrs. Gregory was under the direction of Mrs. C. N. Edmonds. She employed an able body of teachers and gave a thorough course of instruction.
One wonders if these schools did not tend to weaken each other by their multiplicity. At any rate, competition was keen, and individual teachers establishing schools could not relax with the happy assumption that everyone knew where he was and what he had to offer; for the reputation that endured and the institution that lasted was the one that was properly advertised. Instructresses realized that to hold old students, they had to get out after the new, and they tried to accomplish this to a large degree through advertising. The wicked thought occurs that possibly Miss Virginia Rossy, who taught at 208 Crockett Street, was trying to win the Friendly support of the press when she presented the newspaper man with a gift of figs as the following news item shows:
The Misses Rossy have favored the Light with a fine treat
in a basket of figs. These young ladies besides being
good school teachers know very well such presents
are always appreciated by newspaper men and accepted with thanks.
Evidently there were more of the Rossy teachers than one, but Miss Virginia is the only one named in the various notices. In May, 1888, with her thirty small pupils, and several ladies to help care for them, she went on a picnic to San Pedro Park and was the first to use its new pavilion. The Light reporter who was on hand for the occasion describes a very gala affair. In the morning there were games, music, and scholars witnessed the crowning of their classmate, Laura Mussey, as queen. As the day progressed, the fun gained momentum. Several visitors from the city came out for the afternoon, which was spent dancing on the pavilion.
Obviously Miss Rossy possessed initiative to organize her students and use motivation in an intelligent way. She went into partnership with the people of the town, and with their backing was able to, and did, render an important service to the community.
Among other teachers ministering to the cultural needs of San Antonio were the art teacher who inspired students to express their thought on canvas. Mr. and Mrs. J.M. Harwell from New Orleans opened a school December 19, 1871, at Mrs. Shehan’s on Soledad Street. In teaching the art of drawing, these teachers paid particular attention to landscape and portrait painting in oil, water, and pastel. Two lessons were given each week from two to four in the afternoon and pupils were received from eight years upward at a rate of three dollars a month in coin. The motto of this institution was “Excelsior,” and its faculty promised and guaranteed their patrons satisfaction. The public was solicited to visit the school and examine its drawings and paintings.
Other teachers of art were: Miss Willie Bev Scott, who gave lessons in china painting and decoration at 103 Madison Street; Mrs. B.G. Duval who instructed classes in drawing and painting at her studio, 317 Maverick Grove Place; and Mrs. W. S. Hadley, who specified the teaching of similar lines at her residence, 301 Water Street.
Though drawing and painting received considerable attention, other arts were not neglected. The art of dancing was taught by Madame Virginie Donaldson. In 1878, she established her academy which was very successful and survived for many years; in fact, in 1885, she was still advertising.
It is apparent that San Antonio women rendered a valuable service in the educational field. They were elementary teachers, high school instructresses, they served as mistress of the boarding school, and even taught in college. Several ladies specialized in training students in art, in music, in dancing, or in voice. A pleasant glimpse of the voice teacher, Mrs. Ella Rivas Frances, is afforded in the Gulf Messenger. After completing a training course under Albites in New York and studying three years at the Conservatory of Milan, Italy, she made her permanent residence in San Antonio with the training of voices as her specialty. And now, in view of this 19th century educational activity, one reflects that when civilization moved from the rocky shores of New England toward the setting sun, culture followed in its path and deposited a fair share of its load in San Antonio, and women, for the most part, were its disseminators.
San Antonio Herald, December 12, 1855.
Morrison, Historic San Antonio, p. 143.
Pearson Newcomb, The Alamo City, pp. 61-62.
Lilly Mae Hagner, Alluring San Antonio, p. 81.
Pearson Newcomb, p. 63.
Mattie Lloyd Wooten, Women Tell the Story of the Southwest, pp. 10-11.
San Antonio Herald, June 6, 1863
Lilly Mae Hagner, pp. 80-81
Mooney and Morrison, General Directory of the City of San Antonio for 1877-78, p. 54.
Lilly Mae Hagner, p. 82.
Mooney and Morrison, p. 54
Stephen Gould, The Alamo City Guide, p. 119.
San Antonio Express, August 20, 1871.
San Antonio Express, June 3, 1873.
San Antonio Express, August 28, 1873.
Stephen Gould, p. 119.
San Antonio Herald, August 21, 1855.
San Antonio Herald, May 9, 1855.
San Antonio Herald, September 4, 1855.
San Antonio Herald, August 21, 1855. [The author’s intent for the exact point of the reference in the paragraph is unclear—Ed.]
San Antonio Herald, November 20, 1855.
San Antonio Herald, February 6, 1856.
Mattie Lloyd Wooten, p. 204.
Vinton Lee James, Frontier and Pioneer Recollections of Early Days in San Antonio and West Texas, pp. 98-99.
San Antonio Express, September 2, 1871
Vinton Lee James, pp. 98-99.
Lilly Mae Hagner, p. 81.
San Antonio Herald, October 12, 1861.
San Antonio Express, June 8, 1873.
San Antonio Express, October 26, 1873.
San Antonio Express, November 1, 1873.
Alamo Express, San Antonio, Texas, August 18, 1860.
Alamo Express, San Antonio, Texas, September 1, 1860.
San Antonio Herald, January 4, 1862.
San Antonio Herald, August 16, 1862.
San Antonio Express, August 13, 1868.
Ibid., July 2, 1868.
Ibid., December 29, 1870
Ibid. May 21, 1870.,
Ibid., February 9, 1872.
San Antonio Express, February 6, 1872
San Antonio Light, October 5, 1885.
Stephen Gould, op. cit , p. 119.
San Antonio Light, July 20, 1885.
San Antonio Light, May 2, 1888.
San Antonio Express February 2, 1871.
M.B. Fenwick and Sara Hartman, Directory of Societies and Ladies Address List, p. 91; San Antonio Light, April 17, 1888.
Ibid. May 4, 1888.
The Gulf Messenger, VII:2 (1894).